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What Allergies Are High Today In Nj USA

Several people in New Jersey sometimes worry and ask what allergies are high today In Nj. “Allergy” seems to become the fashion word of the twentieth century. If you do not suffer from an allergy yourself, you know at least one person suffering from hay fever, neurodermatitis or asthma. In fact, reports from ancient Rome as well as Egypt are describing allergic symptoms.

Today, an estimated 10-20 per cent of the population suffer from allergies in the industrialized countries. In recent decades, these diseases appear to be steadily increasing. The extent to which the greater medical knowledge about allergic response processes and improved diagnostics or environmental influences are responsible for this increase can not be answered at present. Allergists suspect a reason for the increase, as we are now exposed to more substances that may cause an allergy than we did 50 years ago.

What Allergies Are High Today In Nj

Allergy – allergic immediate reaction

The word “allergy” is derived from the Greek “allon ergon”, which means “react differently”. In this sense – as a modified reaction of an organism – the term was shaped by the Viennese pediatrician Clemens von Pirquet at the beginning of the 20th century. In today’s medical language usage, “allergy” means an insensitivity reaction of the immune system to certain substances that are foreign to the body, which leads to numerous diseases of the disease. The so-called pseudoallergies and intolerances can be distinguished from this. Although comparable symptoms occur, they are not caused by any reactions of the immune system. For example, For example, be foods containing biogenic amines (eg histamine) or substances which cause inflammation or release inflammation-mediated substances. An enzyme deficiency can also be the cause of incompatibilities, For example, a deficiency of the lactose-degrading enzyme in milk lactose intolerance (lactose intolerance).

A complicated mechanism – What Allergies Are High Today In Nj

In an allergy, in principle, the same processes occur as in the normal defense reaction. Substances that trigger a response of the immune system are called antigens. The so-called unspecific and the specific defense work closely together in reacting to such foreign bodies. While the nonspecific part is innate, the specific is acquired only after birth. For nonspecific defense, various types of free-standing (eg macrophages), natural killer cells as well as a number of dissolved substances such as the so-called complement system, the acute phase protein, signaling substances or aggressive compounds. The feeding cells cleave with foreign bodies and also body-borne waste products by absorbing them into the cell interior and enzymatically degrading them. The natural killer cells, on the other hand, damage the cell wall of virus-infected or degenerate cells and thereby dissolve them. In contrast to the acquired defense, the unspecific defense reacts immediately and quickly, but forms no “memory”. The reaction is therefore always the same.

The specific defenses are taken up by different lymphocytes, which are subdivided according to their origin into T and B lymphocytes. The B lymphocytes produce another unit of the immune system: the antibodies, also called immunoglobulins. The activity of the B lymphocytes and thus the number of immunoglobulins is controlled by the T lymphocytes. While T-helper cells stimulate production, T-suppressor cells ensure that they do not overwhelm. The immunoglobulins, of which the B lymphocytes can form 5000-10,000 per second, are protein molecules which, according to their structure and function, are divided into different classes: antibodies of the classes IgA, IgD, IgG, IgM and IgE. Although the macrophages count as nonspecific, they work closely with specific defenses. They are not only enzymatically degrading a foreign substance, but “simultaneously” present the antigen to the T lymphocytes. These are then activated and multiplied. New T helper cells then release signaling which in turn stimulate the B lymphocytes to divide.

Certain B cells now produce specific immunoglobulins against the antigen. The signaling agents of the T helper cells also stimulate the macrophages and thus increase their ability to degrade antigens. In the division of the B- and T-lymphocytes, the memory cells, which store the information on the antigen in question, are formed in addition to the defense cells. The organism is thus sensitized to this foreign body. When a new contact occurs, the memory cells provide a much faster and stronger immune reaction. This sensitization phase is typical for immunological and thus also for allergic processes. Therefore, allergies do not occur at the first contact, but only after repeated contact with the allergens.

The immune system gets out of line – What Allergies Are High Today In Nj

In an allergy, the immune system does not distinguish sufficiently between harmless and harmful substances. It also mobilizes in harmless substances such as, Plant pollen, the body’s defense, which can not be adequately controlled. In principle, every person can get an allergy. However, there is an hereditary predisposition to the formation of allergies, which is called atopia. Children of an allergy-affected parent develop an allergy twice as often as children of unaffected parents. If both parents are allergic, the probability increases even sixfold. But not every atopic is inevitably an allergy sufferer. The decisive factor here is how long and to what extent the body comes into contact with the allergen. In particular, occupational groups which are repeatedly exposed to potential allergens and irritating foreign substances at the workplace are endangered, such as, Such as bakers, hairdressers, carpenters or metalworkers. But even if the permeability of the skin and mucous membranes is increased for foreign substances, Eg by infections and a disturbed intestinal flora, allergies are encouraged. In addition, air pollution, smoking, foreign substances (xenobiotics), physical stimuli such as cold and sun exposure, exertion, fatigue as well as psychological stress can intensify an allergen effect.

In industrial and urban areas, allergies occur more frequently than in developing countries or rural areas. In part, this can be explained by the degree of air pollution. Possibly, however, the lifestyle, such as drinking and smoking habits, has just as much influence. Passive smoking is at the top of the environmental factors that increase the risk of allergies and respiratory diseases in childhood. Thus, persons without genetic predisposition can also develop an allergy. Age may also affect the course and type of allergy. Infants are most commonly allergic to cow’s milk. While a “genuine” cow’s milk energy rarely persists beyond the first year of life, allergies affecting the respiratory tract are predominant. The reasons for this are not yet known.

Typical allergic reactions – What Allergies Are High Today In Nj

According to the classical classification of the allergologists {I} Coombs {I} and {I} Gell {/ I}, allergic reactions are assigned to four groups, depending on the mechanism underlying the allergy. Types I to III are mediated by antibodies circulating in the organism, type IV by certain cells of the immune system. In practice, however, they are seldom precisely distinguishable from one another.

The {B} type I reaction {/ B}, also called immediate reaction or anaphylactic reaction, is the most widespread and is often equated with the term “allergy”. In the case of hay fever, allergic asthma and food and insect toxin allergies, this type of reaction usually occurs. If there is sensitization to an allergen, and if there is a new contact, symptoms appear within seconds or minutes. Triggers are the antibodies of the IgE class. They usually occur only in low concentrations in the organism. In the case of allergic persons, the control of the production of these antibodies, which is the function of the T helper and T suppressor cells, may be disturbed. The formation of IgE antibodies that prefer to bind to cell surfaces, in particular to mast cells and a certain group of white blood corpuscles, results. These cells have a specific function in inflammatory processes and store, among others, histamine, which is one of the mediator substances in inflammatory reactions. If an allergen is stored on the bound IgE, the mast cells are activated and their histamine is released (see Fig. 3). This leads to the typical allergic symptoms, Eg redness, wheezing, itching, mucous membrane reactions or narrowing of the airways.